Steele MacKaye (1842-1894) created a stage at Madison Square Theatre that woked on an elevator system. One stage
above the other mounjted on elevators and operated on a counter weight system to lower the top stage to set on the bottom
stage. This allowed for scene changes to happen in about 40 seconds. MacKaye also created realistic baffalo stampeeds
Planche's The Vampier started the creation fof the Vampier trap which consisted of two spring
leaves that could be placed in the stage floor or the scenery flats. When a person, animal or item is puhed through
the trap, the spring mechanism allows the doors to be closed automatically. This simulated illusions such as actors
sinking into the earth or being able to walk through solid objects.
Around 1890 tredmills were installed to the floord of a stage to allow for a chariot race in which the horse
ran on the electic powered tredmills. a rotating panorama scene was placed behind them to further ellaorate the effect.